# Maple/Simultaneous Equations

## Contents

## Introduction

This page focuses on using Maple to find both the symbolic and the numeric solutions to equations obtained from electric circuits. It assumes that you have already taken the steps in Maple/Initialization and Documentation to start Maple and begin documenting your work.

## Defining Variables and Equations

In Maple, the way you define a variable is by typing the name of the
variable, followed by the symbols **:=**, followed by whatever items
you want to store in the variable. Note the importance of the colon
directly in front of the equals sign - without it, Maple will *not* assign a value to a variable but will merely print out the
equation you typed.
One benefit of this is you can define variables to hold on to
equations and then use those variables later, in concert with Maple's
solver, to get answers for the unknowns. Let us assume that we want to
solve the following equations:

where *x*, *y*, and *z* are unknowns, *a* through *i* are known
coefficients, and *j* through *l* are known variables. To teach
Maple about these equations, you would create three variables, each
holding on to one of the equations. At the prompt, type:

```
eqn1:=a*x+b*y+c*z=j
eqn2:=d*x+e*y+f*z=k
eqn3:=g*x+h*y+i*z=l
```

Note that each time you hit return to go to the next line, Maple processes your input and reports back what it has done. It will also number the outputs for you so you can refer to them later. As an aside, if you try to copy and paste this whole block, when you hit return, you will get a parsing error. Maple is trying to interpret the whole group as one long string of code and gets confused at the end of the first equation. To fix this, if you copy and paste multiple lines of codes, you can end them with a semi-colon:

```
eqn1:=a*x+b*y+c*z=j;
eqn2:=d*x+e*y+f*z=k;
eqn3:=g*x+h*y+i*z=l;
```

The three lines will now be in a single execution group and all three will run when you hit return at the end of that line.

Whichever way you entered and ran the code, at this point, Maple now has three variables, each of which defined as an equation. It is perfectly happy having undefined items in the equations.

## Solving Equations With Maple

To solve the equations, all you need to do is use Maple's built in
**solve** function. One of the best ways to use the **solve**
function is to give it a list of the equations and an array of items
for which to solve. In the equations above, for example, there are
three equations with a total of fifteen symbols - we need to tell
Maple which ones are unknown and it will assume that the others are
known. Add the line:

```
solve({eqn1, eqn2, eqn3}, [x, y, z])
```

and note that the equations are bracketed with curly braces while the
unknowns are in a list set off with square brackets. Hit return, and
you will note that Maple produces a list - set off with double
brackets - containing the answers for *x*, *y*, and *z* in terms of
the other variables. If we had not included the variable list and
instead had asked

```
solve({eqn1, eqn2, eqn3})
```

Maple would have given all possible combinations of all 15 symbols that
would satisfy the equations. Conversely, if we had given Maple only
*x* to work with as an unknown by typing:

```
solve({eqn1, eqn2, eqn3}, [x])
```

the answer would come back as empty because no value
of *x* satisfies the three equations for arbitrary values of the other
14 variables.

In order to use these solutions, you should give them a name. Click
at the start of the **solve** line and pre-pend it with **MySoln:=** so it resembles:

```
MySoln:=solve({eqn1, eqn2, eqn3}, [x, y, z])
```

This will assign the solution list to a variable that we can use later.

## Substituting Values

Now that you have the symbolic answers to the variables *x*, *y*, and
*z*, you may want to substitute the actual coefficient values to
obtain a numerical solution. One way to do this is to generate a list
of the known values, then tell Maple to substitute in the numerical
values by using the built-in **subs** command. Add the following
lines of code:

```
Vals := a=-1, b=2, c=3, d=4, e=5, f=6, g=7, h=8, i=9, j=10, k=11, l=12
subs(Vals, MySoln)
```

Remember if you cut and paste these into a single group you will need to add a semi-colon after the first line or else you will get a parsing error.
The list in **MySoln** will now be shown with numerical values
instead of symbols. Note that you have *not* made any actual
changes to any of the variables - you have just asked Maple to show
you what they would look like given the particular substitutions
presented in **Vals**. This is a very powerful tool, since you can
substitute in a variety of values to see how one or more parameters
influence a particular variable or variables.

**Note:** unlike MATLAB, Maple defines as an upper-case `I`

instead of lower case `i`

. You should therefore avoid re-defining `I`

in Maple; using the lower case version as a variable is perfectly fine.

### Multiple and Dependent Substitution Lists

If you have several sets of equations you want to use for substitution
- including some which are dependent on values set in other equations,
you can still use `subs`

-- you just need to be careful about the
order of the substitutions. As an example, imagine some variable:

where

and

To get *m* in terms of *r*, *s*, *t*, and *u*, you could write:

```
MyEqn:=m=p+q;
SubsList1:=p=r*s, q=t-u;
subs(SubsList1, MyEqn);
```

If you want to get *m'*s numerical value, you must *first* get *m*
in terms of *r*, *s*, *t*, and *u*, and *then* you can substitute
in the numbers for those variables. Specifically:

```
MyEqn:=m=p+q;
SubsList1:=p=r*s, q=t-u;
SubsList2:=r=1, s=2, t=3, u=4;
subs(SubsList1, SubsList2, MyEqn);
```

Putting the equations in the wrong order will end up yielding an
answer that is still in terms of *r*, *s*, *t*, and *u*. The reason
is that `subs`

*only* makes substitutions into the last entry
in the argument list.

Sometimes, you will need to take equations out of a set of brackets to use them. For example, assume that you have some variable you want to calculate called </code>alpha</code>, which has a formula of:

You can put in the solutions for *x*, *y*, and *z* to get `alpha`

in terms of those characters. What makes
this a bit difficult is that `MySoln`

is given as a
single-row matrix and `subs`

just wants the equations
themselves. To extract only the equations, you can write:

```
subs(MySoln[1][], Vals, ThingToSubInFor)
```

Go ahead and add the line

```
subs(MySoln[1][], Vals, alpha)
```

to the end of your worksheet.

Again - the order is important - you need to first substitute in the
equations for the variables higher in the dependency list, *then* give values to the
known quantities, then substitute all that into whatever is in the
final argument of `subs`

.
Run the entire script and make sure that is
when everything gets substituted in.

## Cleaning Things Up

Many times, Maple will produce an expression that is more complicated
than it needs to be. To get what it considers to be the simplest
form, use the **simplify(expand( ))** compound function. The **expand** will take the expression and represent it using as many
simple terms as necessary while **simplify** will recombine them in
the most compact form. Finally, to get a decimal value, use the **evalf[N]( )** function, where **N** represents the number of
decimal digits to use. For example,

```
simplify(expand(alpha))
```

will produce the most symbolically simplified version of while

```
evalf[8](subs(Vals, alpha))
```

will produce a floating point result for . With practice, you
will see how best to combine `evalf`

, `simplify`

, and `expand`

to get the form of answer you want.

## Memory Issues

A major issue to consider with Maple is its memory. At the end of the worksheet above,
there are several variables that are defined, including *x*, *y*, and
*z*. If you go back near the beginning, click in the line where **eqn1** is defined, and hit return, you will notice that where *x*,
*y*, and *z* were before, their symbolic solutions from much further
down the worksheet are being used. This is why the **restart**
command is so helpful - if you need to to run a worksheet again, it is
best to always start from scratch. A shortcut for running an entire
worksheet is the !!! button at the top of the window.